Renal Calculi (Kidney Stone)

· A common cause of blood in urine and pain in the abdomen, flank or groin.

· Occurs in 1 in 20 people at some time in their life.

· The process of stone formation is also called nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis.

· Development of the stones is related to:

(a) Decreased urine volume

(b) Increased excretion of stone forming components such as calcium, oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine and phosphate.

*notes: Cholelithiasis = gall stones

Urolithiasis & Nephrolithiasis = kidney stone

Urolithiasis : Uro = urine, lith = stone, iasis = diseased condition, process

Cholelithiasis: Chole = cholesterol, lith = stone, iasis = diseased condition, process

Nephrolithiasis: Nephro = kidney, lith = stone, iasis = diseased condition, process

· The stones form in the urine collecting area (the pelvis) of the kidney and may range in size from tiny to staghorn stones the size of the renal pelvis itself.

· The pain usually of sudden onset, very severe and colicky (intermittent), not improved by changes in position, radiating from the back, down the flank and into the groin.

· Nausea and vomiting are common.

· The risk factor of calculi is imbalance of urinary pH.

· Predisposing factors may include recent reduction in fluid intake, increased exercise with dehydration, medications that cause hyperuricemia (high uric acid) and a history of gout.

· Treatment includes relief of pain, hydration and if there is concurrent urinary infection, antibiotics.

· The majority of stones pass spontaneously within 48 hours.

· However, some stones may not.

· There are several factors which influence the ability to pass a stone:

o The size of the person

o Prostate enlargement

o Pregnancy

o The size of the stone

§ A 4mm stone has an 80% chance passage while 5mm stone has a 20% chance

· If a stone does not pass, urologic intervention may be needed.

p/s: Always concern of our health before it gone.

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