· A common cause of blood in urine and pain in the abdomen, flank or groin.
· Occurs in 1 in 20 people at some time in their life.
· The process of stone formation is also called nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis.
· Development of the stones is related to:
(a) Decreased urine volume
(b) Increased excretion of stone forming components such as calcium, oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine and phosphate.
*notes: Cholelithiasis = gall stones
Urolithiasis & Nephrolithiasis = kidney stone
Urolithiasis : Uro = urine, lith = stone, iasis = diseased condition, process
Cholelithiasis: Chole = cholesterol, lith = stone, iasis = diseased condition, process
Nephrolithiasis: Nephro = kidney, lith = stone, iasis = diseased condition, process
· The stones form in the urine collecting area (the pelvis) of the kidney and may range in size from tiny to staghorn stones the size of the renal pelvis itself.
· The pain usually of sudden onset, very severe and colicky (intermittent), not improved by changes in position, radiating from the back, down the flank and into the groin.
· Nausea and vomiting are common.
· The risk factor of calculi is imbalance of urinary pH.
· Predisposing factors may include recent reduction in fluid intake, increased exercise with dehydration, medications that cause hyperuricemia (high uric acid) and a history of gout.
· Treatment includes relief of pain, hydration and if there is concurrent urinary infection, antibiotics.
· The majority of stones pass spontaneously within 48 hours.
· However, some stones may not.
· There are several factors which influence the ability to pass a stone:
o The size of the person
o Prostate enlargement
o The size of the stone
§ A 4mm stone has an 80% chance passage while 5mm stone has a 20% chance
· If a stone does not pass, urologic intervention may be needed.
p/s: Always concern of our health before it gone.