1. Define Pharmacology (2 marks)
2. Define Pharmacokinetics ( 2 marks)
3. Describe drug development phase ( 6 marks)
4. Distinguish between suspension and emulsion drug. ( 4 marks)
5. Distinguish between ointment and cream ( 4 marks)
6. Discuss the merits of sustained release preparation ( 4 marks)
7. Differentiate between parenteral and enteral administration method and give an example of each procedure ( 4 marks)
8. List THREE (3) most common injection methods. Describe how each method being conducted, site of injection and pros and cons of each procedure ( 15 marks)
9. Explain drug ionization concept in treating acid drug toxicity ( 5 marks)
10. Elaborate process involved in phase I and II metabolism ( 6 marks)
11. What is function of Cytochrome P450 in human? Explain in details induction and inhibition of cytochrome P-450 enzymes theories. ( 6 marks)
12. Write a short note about factors that manipulate drugs absorption and distribution process ( 15 marks)
13. What is blood brain barrier? ( 3 marks)
14. How plasma proteins regulate concentration of drug in the body? (4 marks)
15. Explain principle of drug action ( 6 marks)
16. Discuss in details mechanism of drug action ( 10 marks)
17. With the help of graph, state information that can be obtained from drug concentration in blood versus time (6 marks)
18. What are potency and efficacy ( 4 marks)
19. Define tolerance. Explain THREE (3) types of tolerance ( 10 marks)
20. What is polypharmacy? (2 marks)
21. State the formula for bioavailability (2 marks)
22. What is Volume of Distribution (Vd) ( 2 marks)
23. State the formula for calculation of half life (2 marks)
24. Write a short note regarding first order kinetic and zero order kinetics ( 6 marks)
25. Write a short note differentiating synergism effects and antagonisms effects ( 6 marks)
- Dari segi pakaian, tidak terlalu nampak 'berat' dan 'susah' untuk bergerak.
- Warna pakaian biru tua seperti pakaian Polis biasa.
Federal Reserve Unit (FRU)
- Memakai pelindung lutut, siku dan pelindung yang lain.
1. Explain in details the pathology of atherosclerosis occurring on the artery wall.
2. Define atherosclerosis. Briefly discuss the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis causes myocardial infarction and stroke.
3. Identify the risk factor for atherosclerosis.
4. List out the pathological finding of heart in response to cardiac failure.
5. Discuss how kidney failure may lead to hypertension.
6. Briefly discuss on how hypertension and diabetes may trigger the infarction of myocardial.
7. Define the term Babinski’s reflex and in which disorder this symptom appear?
8. List out the complications of myocardial infarction and lab diagnosis to confirm this disease.
9. Define cardiogenic shock. Explain how cardiogenic shock may cause organ necrosis.
10. Classify the following cases of hypertension:
a) 43 yrs old, male, 140kg, BP 170/100
b) Cushing patient, female 30 yrs old, BP 145/95
c) Diabetic patient, male 30 yrs old, BP 190/110
1.Define pneumonia and briefly explain the pathogenesis of this disease.
2.Briefly discuss the etiopathogenesis of lobar pneumonia and state its complications.
3.Differentiate between broncho and lobar pneumonia.
4.Discuss the pathogenesis of TB.
5.Discuss the lab findings of tuberculosis which is essential in confirming the disease.
6.Enumerate the available lab test for diagnosing patient with TB.
7.State TWO (2) diseases which may simultaneous presence in smokers.
8.Discuss on how smokes may cause the septal walls destruction.
9.Explain why smokers are susceptible to lower respiratory tract infection.
10.Explain on how smoking may affect the respiratory system.
11.Compare between extrinsic and intrinsic allergic asthma.
12.Briefly explain the pathogenesis of bronchiol asthma.
13.Differentiate the pathological findings of asthmatic patient and normal individual.
14.Define emphysema and compare it with chronic bronchitis.
15.Define bronchiectasis and pneumoconiosis.
16.Identify the most common lung tumor and how to diagnose this tumor cells?
1.Discuss about the following GIT motor dysfunction:
b. Mallory-weiss syndrome
c. Hiatal hernia
2.State the main etiology of GERD and discuss the complications of this disorder. Suggest also the appropriate treatment for patient with GERD.
3.What are the non-pharmacological ways to reduce GERD symptoms?
4.List the diagnostic tests used for GERD.
5.Define Barrett’s esophagus and discuss the long term effect of this disorder.
6.Discuss the pathogenesis of the progression of H.pylori gastritis causes gastric cancer and suggest an appropriate treatments.
7.Elaborate the pathogenesis of autoimmune gastritis in a 60 year old man.
8.Define peptic ulcer and discuss the role of H.pylori in the pathogenesis of this disease.
9.Enumerate the THREE (3) stages of H.pylori gastritis.
10.Justify on how NSAIDs cause ulcer of stomach.
11.Differentiate the pathological findings between Crohn’s disease & ulcerative colitis.
1.Define the following terms:
c. Councilman bodies.
2.Discuss the FIVE (5) stages of hepatic injury.
3.Explain the pathogenesis & features for cirrhosis.
4.Discuss the clinical and pathological effects of hepatocellular failure.
5.List out the parameters for liver function test and state the importance of each of the parameter.
6.Explain the etiology of hepatic encephalopathy and clinical features of patient with this disorder.
7.Explain the etiology of portal hypertension and clinical features of patient with this disorder.
8.Define jaundice and differentiate the THREE (3) types of jaundice.
10.Discuss the possible etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma and identify how this cancerous cell migrate to the other organ.
11.Discuss the pathological finding for alcoholic liver disease.
12.Explain on how alcoholic liver disease commonly present with hepatomegaly.
13.Briefly discuss the complications and treatment available for alcoholic hepatitis.